A ZIP Code is a 5-digit number that specifies an individual destination post office or mail delivery area. ZIP Codes determine the destination of letters for final sorting and delivery. Each ZIP Code designates a collection of delivery routes used by mail carriers and areas serviced by the USPS.
ZIP Codes are 5-digit numbers developed by the United States Postal Service to represent individual post officesacross the United States. "ZIP Code" is the name of the postal code system for the United States. Like the US, most countries havetheir own postal code system names.
The first three digits of a ZIP Code together usually indicate thecentral mail processing facility, also referred to as a sec center or sectional center facility to which that ZIP Code belongs.This facility is the mail sorting and distribution center for a zone or area. Some sectional center facilitieshave multiple three-digit codes assigned to them. For example, the Northern Virginia sectional center facility in Merrifieldis assigned ZIP Codes beginning with 220, 221, 222, and 223.
The fourth and fifth digits of the ZIP Code represent the area of the city or town. For example, if a letter isreceived with a ZIP Code of 47722, the USPS can know that it's in Indiana (4), it's in Vanderburgh county (77), and it's in thearea of the University of Evansville (22).
In 1983, the USPS moved to the next generation of ZIP Codes and changed its system to include the new ZIP+4. A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits for a full 9-digit ZIP Code. The full ZIP Code identifies a small mail delivery segment such as a street, a city block, a group of apartments, or even an individual street address that receives a high volume of mail. The ZIP+4 Code is not required and is usually calculated automatically when the mail is sorted and processed. ZIP+4 Codes look like this:
As a rule, each Post Office Box has its own ZIP+4 Code. The +4 on the ZIP Code is often the last four digits of the box number, zeroplus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number is less than 4 digits, zeros followed by thebox number. Since there is this variance, the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each Post Office Box.
Not all USPS deliverable addresses have a ZIP+4 Code assigned to them. For those postal addresses,geocoding lookups or addressvalidation that require aZIP+4 may not succeed. Even though the USPS might not provide accurate geocodes for those addresses,Smarty can still provideroof-top level geocodes for most addresses in the US.
A Postal Index Number Or PIN Or Pincode is a code in the post office numbering or post code system used by india post. The code is six digits long. The first digit of the PIN code indicates the region. The second digit indicates the sub-region, and the third digit indicates the sorting district within the region. The final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. India has nine PIN zones.
The simplified procedure in design codes for determining earthquake response spectra involves : estimating site coefficients to adjust available rock accelerations to site accelerations. Several : investigators have noted concerns with the site coeff...
In this paper we summarize our recently-published work on estimating horizontal response spectra and peak acceleration for shallow earthquakes in western North America. Although none of the sets of coefficients given here for the equations are new, for the convenience of the reader and in keeping with the style of this special issue, we provide tables for estimating random horizontal-component peak acceleration and 5 percent damped pseudo-acceleration response spectra in terms of the natural, rather than common, logarithm of the ground-motion parameter. The equations give ground motion in terms of moment magnitude, distance, and site conditions for strike-slip, reverse-slip, or unspecified faulting mechanisms. Site conditions are represented by the shear velocity averaged over the upper 30 m, and recommended values of average shear velocity are given for typical rock and soil sites and for site categories used in the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program's recommended seismic code provisions. In addition, we stipulate more restrictive ranges of magnitude and distance for the use of our equations than in our previous publications. Finally, we provide tables of input parameters that include a few corrections to site classifications and earthquake magnitude (the corrections made a small enough difference in the ground-motion predictions that we chose not to change the coefficients of the prediction equations).
We estimate the source spectra of shallow earthquakes from digital recordings of teleseismic P wave groups, that is, P+pP+sP, by making frequency dependent corrections for the attenuation and for the interference of the free surface. The correction for the interference of the free surface assumes that the earthquake radiates energy from a range of depths. We apply this spectral analysis to a set of 12 subduction zone earthquakes which range in size from Ms = 6.2 to 8.1, obtaining corrected P wave acceleration spectra on the frequency band from 0.01 to 2.0 Hz. Seismic moment estimates from surface waves and normal modes are used to extend these P wave spectra to the frequency band from 0.001 to 0.01 Hz. The acceleration spectra of large subduction zone earthquakes, that is, earthquakes whose seismic moments are greater than 1027 dyn cm, exhibit intermediate slopes where u(w)???w5/4 for frequencies from 0.005 to 0.05 Hz. For these earthquakes, spectral shape appears to be a discontinuous function of seismic moment. Using reasonable assumptions for the phase characteristics, we transform the spectral shape observed for large earthquakes into the time domain to fit Ekstrom's (1987) moment rate functions for the Ms=8.1 Michoacan earthquake of September 19, 1985, and the Ms=7.6 Michoacan aftershock of September 21, 1985. -from Authors
With increasing interest in displacement spectra and long-period motions, it is important to check the sensitivity of both elastic and inelastic response spectra to the filtering that is often necessary to remove long period artifacts, even from many modern digital recordings. Using two records of very different character from the M=7.1, 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake, we find that the response spectra can be sensitive to the corner periods used in causal filtering, even for oscillator periods much less than the filter corner periods. The effect is most pronounced for inelastic response spectra, where the ratio of response spectra computed from accelerations filtered at 25 and 200 sec can be close to a factor of 2 for oscillator periods less than 5 sec. Published in 2003 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Many studies in the past on dynamic soil-structure interactions have revealed the detrimental and advantageous effects of soil flexibility. Based on such studies, the design response spectra of international seismic codes are being improved worldwide. The improvements required for the short period range of the design response spectra in the Indian seismic code (IS 1893:2002) are presented in this paper. As the recent code revisions has not incorporated the short period amplifications, proposals given in this paper are equally applicable for the latest code also (IS 1893:2016). Analyses of single degree of freedom systems are performed to predict the required improvements. The proposed modifications to the constant acceleration portion of the spectra are evaluated with respect to the current design spectra in Eurocode 8.
The correct determination of the X-ray peak areas in PIXE spectra by fitting with a computer program depends crucially on accurate parameterization of the detector peak response function. In the Guelph PIXE software package, GUPIXWin, one of the most used PIXE spectra analysis code, the response of a semiconductor detector to monochromatic X-ray radiation is described by a linear combination of several analytical functions: a Gaussian profile for the X-ray line itself, and additional tail contributions (exponential tails and step functions) on the low-energy side of the X-ray line to describe incomplete charge collection effects. The literature on the spectral response of silicon X-ray detectors for PIXE applications is rather scarce, in particular data for Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and for a large range of X-ray energies are missing. Using a set of analytical functions, the SDD response functions were satisfactorily reproduced for the X-ray energy range 1-15 keV. The behaviour of the parameters involved in the SDD tailing functions with X-ray energy is described by simple polynomial functions, which permit an easy implementation in PIXE spectra fitting codes.
The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before the PSAs are computed. In this article we are only concerned with the removal of high frequencies. In modern digital recordings, this filtering corresponds at least to an anti-aliasing filter applied before conversion to digital values. Additional high-cut filtering is sometimes applied both to digital and to analog records to reduce high-frequency noise. Potential errors on the short-period (high-frequency) response spectral values are expected if the true ground motion has significant energy at frequencies above that of the anti-aliasing filter. This is especially important for areas where the instrumental sample rate and the associated anti-aliasing filter corner frequency (above which significant energy in the time series is removed) are low relative to the frequencies contained in the true ground motions. A ground-motion simulation study was conducted to investigate these effects and to develop guidance for defining the usable bandwidth for high-frequency PSA. The primary conclusion is that if the ratio of the maximum Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) to the FAS at a frequency fsaa corresponding to the start of the anti-aliasing filter is more than about 10, then PSA for frequencies above fsaa should be little affected by the recording process, because the ground-motion frequencies that control the response spectra will be less than fsaa . A second topic of this article concerns the resampling of the digital acceleration time series to a higher sample rate often used in the computation of short-period PSA. We confirm previous findings that sinc-function interpolation is preferred to the standard practice of using 2b1af7f3a8